- Version Française (click) . . . . - Deutsch Version (klicken)
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Fibre optics and investment returns
The company ADTIM, subsidiary of the group Axione / ETDE [Groupe Bouygues] / ETDE Investissement / Eiffage, had been entrusted by the ADN organisation
with establishing and running the ADN broadband network throughout
the Ardèche and the Drôme, on the basis of fulfilling a public service.
Under the terms of a 25-year contract, ADTIM is responsible for the design, construction and operation of the network,
providing facilities for national and local telecommunications companies.
Axione, subsidiary of ETDE (Bouygues Construction),
specialises in the management of Délégations de Services Publics (DSP)
in the development of broadband networks throughout the country.
ETDE, subsidiary of Bouygues Construction, coordinates technical developments and services, and deals with public and private clients in the fields of energy, industry, infrastructure, transport, environment and telecommunications.
Estimated investment returns (non-binding)
If a minimum 27% of the 372,000 homes in the area, ie about 100,000,
take up the "triple play" offer at a minimum estimate of 20€/month, (30$/month)
the annual turnover would be 100,000 x 20 x 12 = 24M€ (36M$).
Since the basic outlay by ADTIM is 73M€ (184M$),
the gross return on this investment would be realised in about 3 years.
Thus even on a minimum estimate the company would be making
a clear profit margin in the 5th or 6th year.
Consequently, contrary to the idea put about by certain representatives
of the wireless industries,
quite apart from the advantages of security and the exceptional quality of the service provided, the widespread installation of the fibre optic network,
even in difficult conditions, produces a substantial short term profit for both public and private investors, and does so without causing any environmental pollution.
Thus fibre optics are without any possible contradiction
the alternative to WiMax, WiFi
and other sources
of artificial electromagnetic HF microwave radiation,
the primary cause of environmental pollution in the 21st century.
Didier Guillaume, Prt General Council Drôme
- The network ADN (Ardèche Drôme Numérique)
"We are taking a gamble on the future by launching this project with a programme unique in France," declared Didier Guillaume,
The fibre optic network provides ultra high speed broadband connection (100 Mbps) without any signal loss due to distance. The objective is to have in place by July 2010 a fibre optic network that will enable more than 372,000 homes to connect, via the ordinary phone line through 213 switchboards, to a "triple play" service offering high speed and ultra high speed Internet, telephone and television.
The use of WiFi or WiMax antennas has been dropped altogether because of the dangers to human health from electromagnetic radiation, a salutary and enlightened decision that is a world first!
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In the face of the present unprecedented increase in artificial microwave radiation in the environment, there is a vital need to obtain up to date information as a basis for a comprehensive assessment of the impact of this radiation on people's health.
This questionnaire for the general public is easy to fill in and anonymous.
For it to be credible and representative it is essential for it to be circulated widely in Europe and worldwide so that we can amass the maximum statistical data.
Designed originally in a printed version by Dr Roger Santini, it has been updated so that people who live close to relay antennas can give the full details of their experience.
The statistics gathered from this enquiry will be sent anonymously to scientists
and health organisations for analysis and publication.
Please help circulate this questionnaire.
The answer for broadband:
Artificial EM radiation = 0
An optical fibre is simply a guide for an optical wave that makes use of the refractive properties of light, with a core the width of a hair that is made of glass or plastic.
As the wave passes through the fibre it is modulated
so that it can carry a telecommunication signal.
In the Monomode type that carries a single propagation mode (beam trajectory), the core has a diameter of 9µm. This is used mainly for long distance signals and broadband.
The capacity of the fibre to transmit over long distances depends on its diameter.
The finer it is, the further it can transmit.
The Multimode fibre that carries several modes at lower speed has a diameter of 50/62µm. Recent technological advances make it possible to use this to carry broadband
over short distances (1km).
The core is surrounded by a sheath that in turn has protective cladding.
If a beam of light is projected into it at one end at the correct angle
it travels instantaneously to the other end with no (or very slight) loss of the signal
even if it goes round a bend, regardless of the distance.
However the signal shows an inevitable loss wherever there is a soldered join between fibres.
To find out more: Wikipedia
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- Part 1: a case study -
Mechanised installation of PVC tubes to carry the optical fibres in a narrow trench cut
by a tracked vehicle with a hydraulic wheel that cuts through any road surface including concrete
The vehicle also has a conveyor system for removing the debris
The vehicle at work cutting a narrow trench for 2 PVC tubes to take the optical fibres
Refilling and levelling the trench with a protective layer of concrete
Feeder for the liquid concrete
Flatbed truck with the cable reels at the start of the work site
Broadband network installation: trench-cutting vehicle with suction system
Trench cutting vehicle with suction system to remove debris
Remote-controlled hydraulic cutting wheel with suction system to remove debris
A suction nozzle follows the cutter to suck up the debris from the trench
The cutting edge of the hydraulic wheel showing its tungsten teeth
1 - The hydraulic cutting wheel at work
2 - Laying the PVC tubes and a green warning cable in the trench
3 - Refilling and levelling with a protective layer of concrete
Feeding in the concrete to level off the trench.
Soldering Optical Fibres
Preparing an optical fibre on a vice for soldering: cutting at a right angle and stripping the cladding from the core
Placing the two fibres to be joined in the holder between the welding electrodes (arc welding)
The protective metacrylate tube holding the sheath can be seen on the right.
Getting ready to solder: checking the alignment of the two hair's-breadth cores, which have been cleanly cut
Checking the amount of signal loss after soldering.
The quality of a fibre optic connection is measured by the loss of signal transmitted expressed in dB.
The loss is caused by different factors:
the fibre itself, the soldered points, the various connectors and glitches (awkward bends in the fibre, etc)
There are 2 ways to check this:
- photometry, the simplest method, which indicates how much the loss is through a connection, but not the reasons for it.
- reflectometry, a more complicated method that indicates also how long the fibre is and where the weak points are.
Stackable holders for the soldered fibre ends
Detail of a holder
Overall view of a sealed junction box for 3 optical fibres
Optical Fibre cable (up to 24 strands/multi-torons) with protective cover and shielding
- Part 2 to follow -
Dossier: Fibre optics, the solution NRA-ZO
(for reaching customers in more remote areas)